Introduction to Memory in Computer

Types of Memory in Computer

Introduction to Memory in Computer

Memory is a necessary part of the computer. It is a basic need to store and analyze data and accordingly give responses to the commands inferred on the computer by the users. Memory is the storage section of the computer’s functioning. The information for immediate use and for the computer hardware devices and their functioning is stored in the memory too. High-speed operations take place in the memory for the processing of information in the computer. Similar to the human brain, there are different types of memory storage available on the computer. With changing times and constant development in technology, the memory is also upgraded.

Different Types of Memory in a Computer

There are mainly two types of memory in a computer – Primary memory and Secondary memory. Primary memory includes ROM (Read-only memory) and RAM (Random Access Memory). Secondary memory includes the hardware storage devices which are separately included like HDD (Hard Disk Drives), SSD (Solid State Drives), Compact Disk, and other devices. The computer system operates and functions with the help of these memory types. Each of the memory types has their own set of strengths and weaknesses and are constantly researched and upgraded to benefit users who use computers all over the world. Computer technology has reached great successes due to the successful researches made in the field of Computer Memory to enhance the experience and store maximum data. Some of the computer memory can store data for a longer period of time even when there is no power. They are termed as being non-volatile. Some can store only when on power for a short period of time and they are termed as being volatile. If a very excellent combination of both types of memory is used in the configuration of the computer, it provides excellent results. Let us look at the two types of memory:

1. Primary Memory

This type of memory includes both the RAM (Random Access Memory) and the ROM (Read-Only Memory). It stores very small amounts of data and can be accessed very quickly when the computer is running on power mode.

i. RAM (Random Access Memory)

The data that is stored in the RAM memory can be accessed in a random manner. There is no particular order needed. It is the most expensive type of memory. It is very fast and quick but requires power to run and to exchange data and share data that is stored in its memory. Whichever data is needed to be processed imminently is moved to the RAM where the modification and accessing of the data is done quickly so that there is no waiting period for the CPU to start functioning. It improves the speed of the processing of the CPU and the different multiple commands given to it by the users. Whichever data becomes out of use is then move to the secondary memory and the space in the RAM is freed for further processes.

Two types of RAM are:


Dynamic RAM is the commonly used RAM in the computers. Unlike earlier times when the computers used to use single data rate (SDR) RAM, now they use dual data rate (DDR) RAM which has faster processing ability. DDR2, DDR3, DDR4 are the available versions of the DRAM each efficient according to their number. The compatibility of the DRAM with the operating system needs to be checked before any installation.


Static RAM is faster than Dynamic RAM and therefore it is more expensive. It has a total of six transistors in each of its cells. Therefore, it is commonly used as a data cache within the CPU and in high-end servers. It helps in the speed improvements of the Computer. Popular Course in this categoryAll in One Software Development Bundle (600+ Courses, 50+ projects)600+ Online Courses | 3000+ Hours | Verifiable Certificates | Lifetime Access
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ii. ROM (Read-Only Memory)

Data can be only read and not written to it. It is a fast type of memory. It is a non-volatile type of memory. In case of no power, the data is stored in it and then accessed by the computer when power is turned on. It usually contains the Bootstrap code which is required for the computer to interact with the hardware systems and understand its operations and functions according to the commands given to it. In simpler devices used commonly, there is ROM in which the firmware data is stored to get them to function according to their need.

2. Secondary Memory

It is physically placed or located inside a separate storage device which is then connected to the computer for access. HDD and SSD are the most commonly used secondary memory devices in a computer normally. They are not as expensive as the RAM and ROM and are reasonably priced. Their read and write speed is also comparatively lower. Since it is a separate device altogether, it can preserve the data that is saved inside it without the need for power. The data exchanged and stored is first sent to the RAM and then to the CPU for further processing. They have the possibility of permanently storing the data and at the same time, you can easily use them anywhere and carry them along with you.

Uses of Memory in a Computer

Computer memory is one of the basic needs of the CPU and its functioning to run the computer as it should. Computer Memory speeds up the data processing which is done by the CPU (Central Processing Unit). Storage of temporary and permanent data is necessary for the computer to run its processes and also respond to the user commands by communicating with all the hardware devices that support the computer and its running. The efficiency of the computer needs memory as a basic amenity in its system. The better the memory; the faster the computer will function.


The Memory plays a crucial role in the functioning of the computer system. With technological advancements, the inventions of better memory speeds make it certain that they will improvise the quality of computer performances that are today used across the globe for all the major programming and processes of all types in different industries.

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This is a guide to Types of Memory in Computer. Here we discuss the introduction and different types of memory in the computer i.e. primary and secondary in detail. You can also go through our other related articles to learn more –

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