Introduction to Components of Embedded System

Components of Embedded System

Introduction to Components of Embedded System

The embedded system is classified as a type of system that is made up of software and hardware components that is used for performing specific functions. The embedded systems can be used in various sectors like industries, agricultural devices, medical devices and automobiles industry, and many more sectors. The embedded system can be used to perform a single task or more than one task at the same time. There are multiple components involved in the design of an embedded system. The components used are software components and hardware components.

Components of the Embedded System

As the embedded system is made up of hardware and software components. In below section hardware components are described below:

1. Power supply

For the embedded system the power supply is the key component to provide the power to the embedded system circuit. Usually, the embedded system requires 5 V supply or can be range from 1.8 to 3.3. V.  The power supply source can be battery or can be provided by a wall adaptor. The power supply is selected as per user requirements and application requirements. The power supply should be smooth and should be efficient so that continuous power supply can be provided to an embedded system. The power supply should also allow dissipation and should be as efficient as possible.

2. Processor

For any embedded system the processor acts as the brain of the system. The processor is responsible for deciding the performance of the embedded system. In the market there are multiple types of processors available and can be selected as per user requirement. The embedded system can act as a microcontroller and microprocessor. The processor can be an 8-bit processor, a 16-bit processor, and a 32-bit processor. The lesser the bit the smaller the application is for embedded systems. When large applications are used the higher bit processor is needed in the embedded system. The processor needs to be very fast, the price should be minimum, performance should be good so that functions can be performed very fast in an embedded system.

3. Memory

As there are different microcontrollers is used in the embedded system the memory is present in the microcontroller itself.  There are basically two types of memory RAM(Random access memory) and ROM (Read-only memory). As the RAM is volatile type memory the data can be stored temporarily in the memory and when system is switch off the data is lost from the memory. Read-only memory is classified as code memory. The ROM is used for storing the program and when the system is switch on the embedded system fetch code from ROM memory.

4. Timers counters

In some of the applications there is always a requirement of delay that needed to provide in the application. For example, in LED display applications there is a requirement of some delay so that LED can be continuing blink.  And for that timer and counter can be used in the embedded system. The programming can be done in such a way so that delay can be generating the embedded system.  The delay time span can be decided by using the crystal oscillator and system frequency so that delay can be generated as per user requirement. Popular Course in this categoryWindows 10 Training (4 Courses, 4+ Projects)4 Online Courses | 4 Hands-On Projects | 26+ Hours | Verifiable Certificate of Completion | Lifetime Access
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5. Communication ports

The communication port is the type of interface that is used to communicate with other types of embedded systems. In the embedded system there is multiple types of communication ports like UART, USB, Ethernet, RS-485, and many more. When an embedded system is used in small scale application then the communication ports can be used from the microcontroller. There are also serial protocols that can be used for sending data from one system board to another board.

6. Output and Input

When the embedded system is used the input is needed to interact with the system. The input to the embedded system can be provided by the sensor or by the user itself. The processor used in the embedded system can be based on input and output. The proper configuration needs to be done for using the input and output port. In the embedded system there are fixed input and output ports so that devices can be connected to that specified ports only. For example, P0, P1, P2, and many more.

7. Circuits used in application

When the embedded system is design there are several hardware components that can be used for design purposes. The selection of the circuit is completely dependent on the application used for the embedded systems. For example, in temperature sensor applications there is a requirement of temperature sensors for measuring the temperature.

Hardware Components of the Embedded System

When all the hardware components are selected for an embedded system the next task is to select software components for designing an embedded system.

1. Assembler

The assembler is sued when the programming language sued for designing the application is assembly language.  The assembly language program is then converted into the HEX code so that it can be further processed. And after writing the code the programmer is used for writing the program in the chip.

2. Emulator

An emulator is a software tool that is used to execute the functions of the host system. All the components can be controlled by the emulator tool. The emulator is also used for finding the bugs and for debugging code. The emulator also used to transfer the code from the host system to the target system.

3. Compiler

The compiler is a type of software that is used to convert the programming language into some language that the target machine can understand and execute the functions. The basic use of the compiler is to transfer the high-level code into some low-level language. The low-level languages include machine code, object code, and assembly language.


The embedded system is the type of system that is generally made up of hardware and software components. There are several hardware components and software components and the selection of components for designing of embedded system is completely dependent on the application and user requirements. The higher the number of components more is the cost of embedded systems and more complex will be the design of an embedded system.

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